A competitive decentralized framework for Volt-VAr optimization of transmission and distribution systems with high penetration of distributed energy resources
A more efficient Volt-VAr optimization (VVO) for transmission and distribution systems can be realized with considering the interaction between distribution system operators (DSOs) and transmission system operator (TSO) and using flexibility resources such as Distributed Generations (DGs) with high penetration in distribution systems. In this paper, a competitive decentralized framework is proposed for interactive VVO of transmission and distribution systems, in the presence of high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs). In the proposed scheme, while TSO and DSOs are self-interested and individually solve VVO sub-problem according to their own objectives and constraints, they are interactive and receive feedback from each other to understand the mutual effects of their decisions and give an appropriate response. Each optimization sub-problem minimizes power losses of its own network for each load level subjected to the network and reactive power resources constraints. The defined interactive VVO problem is solved by a new decentralized algorithm based on the decomposition of boundary bus variables between transmission and distribution systems. Furthermore, some heuristic techniques are applied to convert the sub-problems formulation to a linear or at least convex one. Some case studies on IEEE 14-bus test system connected to three IEEE 69-bus distribution systems and IEEE 118-bus test system connected to thirty IEEE 69-bus distribution systems confirm the efficiency of the proposed framework in view of power loss, voltage profile and reactive power generation of transmission and distribution networks in comparison with isolated and interactive cooperative methods.
Authors: Moossa Khodadadi Arpanahi and Mohamad-EsmailHamedani-Golshan
Electric Power Systems Research, Volume 186, September 2020.